All Āsavas

MN 2
PTS: M i 6
Sabbāsava Sutta
(All Āsavas)

1. Thus have I heard.

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park. There he addressed the bhikkhus thus: “Bhikkhus.”—“Venerable sir,” they replied. The Blessed One said this:

2. “Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a discourse on the restraint of all āsavas. Listen and attend closely to what I shall say.”—“Yes, venerable sir,” the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:

(SUMMARY)

3. “Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction of the āsavas is for one who knows and sees, not for one who does not know and see. Who knows and sees what? Wise attention and unwise attention. When one attends unwisely, unarisen āsavas arise and arisen āsavas increase. When one attends wisely, unarisen āsavas do not arise and arisen āsavas are abandoned.

4. “Bhikkhus, there are āsavas that should be abandoned by seeing. There are āsavas that should be abandoned by restraining. There are āsavas that should be abandoned by using. There are āsavas that should be abandoned by enduring. There are āsavas that should be abandoned by avoiding. There are āsavas that should be abandoned by removing. There are āsavas that should be abandoned by developing.

(ĀSAVAS TO BE ABANDONED BY SEEING)

5. “What āsavas, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by seeing? Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person, who has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, who has no regard for wise men and women and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, does not understand what things are fit for attention and what things are unfit for attention. Since that is so, he attends to those things unfit for attention and he does not attend to those things fit for attention.

6. “What are the things unfit for attention that he attends to? They are things such that, when he attends to them, the unarisen āsava of sensual desire arises in him and the arisen āsava of sensual desire increases, the unarisen āsava of becoming arises in him and the arisen āsava of becoming increases, the unarisen āsava of ignorance arises in him and the arisen āsava of ignorance increases. These are the things unfit for attention that he attends to. And what are the things fit for attention that he does not attend to? They are things such that, when he attends to them, the unarisen āsava of sensual desire does not arise in him and the arisen āsava of sensual desire is abandoned, the unarisen āsava of becoming does not arise in him and the arisen āsava of becoming is abandoned, the unarisen āsava of ignorance does not arise in him and the arisen āsava of ignorance is abandoned. These are the things fit for attention that he does not attend to. By attending to things unfit for attention and by not attending to things fit for attention, both unarisen āsavas arise in him and arisen āsavas increase.

7. “This is how he attends unwisely: ‘Was I in the past? Was I not in the past? What was I in the past? How was I in the past? Having been what, what did I become in the past? Shall I be in the future? Shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the future? How shall I be in the future? Having been what, what shall I become in the future?’ Or else he is inwardly perplexed about the present thus: ‘Am I? Am I not? What am I? How am I? Where has this being come from? Where will it go?’

8. “When he attends unwisely in this way, one of six views arises in him. The view ‘self exists for me’ arises in him as true and established; or the view ‘no self exists for me’ arises in him as true and established; or the view ‘I perceive self with self’ arises in him as true and established; or the view ‘I perceive not-self with self’ arises in him as true and established; or the view ‘I perceive self with not-self’ arises in him as true and established; or else he has some such view as this: ‘It is this self of mine that speaks and feels and experiences here and there the result of good and bad actions; but this self of mine is permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change, and it will endure as long as eternity.’ This speculative view, bhikkhus, is called the thicket of views, the wilderness of views, the contortion of views, the vacillation of views, the fetter of views. Fettered by the fetter of views, the untaught ordinary person is not freed from birth, ageing, and death, from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; he is not freed from suffering, I say.

9. “Bhikkhus, a well-taught noble disciple, who has regard for noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has regard for wise men and women and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, understands what things are fit for attention and what things are unfit for attention. Since that is so, he does not attend to those things unfit for attention and he attends to those things fit for attention.

10. “What are the things unfit for attention that he does not attend to? They are things such that, when he attends to them, the unarisen āsava of sensual desire arises in him and the arisen āsava of sensual desire increases, the unarisen āsava of becoming arises in him and the arisen āsava of becoming increases, the unarisen āsava of ignorance arises in him and the arisen āsava of ignorance increases. These are the things unfit for attention that he does not attend to. And what are the things fit for attention that he attends to? They are things such that, when he attends to them, the unarisen āsava of sensual desire does not arise in him and the arisen āsava of sensual desire is abandoned, the unarisen āsava of becoming does not arise in him and the arisen āsava of becoming is abandoned, the unarisen āsava of ignorance does not arise in him and the arisen āsava of ignorance is abandoned. These are the things fit for attention that he attends to. By not attending to things unfit for attention and by attending to things fit for attention, unarisen āsavas do not arise in him and arisen āsavas are abandoned.

11. “He attends wisely: ‘This is suffering’; he attends wisely: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; he attends wisely: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; he attends wisely: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ When he attends wisely in this way, three fetters are abandoned in him: belief in a self, doubt, and attachment to rites and rituals. These are called the āsavas that should be abandoned by seeing.

(ĀSAVAS TO BE ABANDONED BY RESTRAINING)

12. “What āsavas, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by restraining? Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, abides with the eye faculty restrained. While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who abides with the eye faculty unrestrained, āsavas do not arise in one who abides with the eye faculty restrained. Reflecting wisely, he abides with the ear faculty restrained. While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who abides with the ear faculty unrestrained, āsavas do not arise in one who abides with the ear faculty restrained. Reflecting wisely, he abides with the nose faculty restrained. While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who abides with the nose faculty unrestrained, āsavas do not arise in one who abides with the nose faculty restrained. Reflecting wisely, he abides with the tongue faculty restrained. While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who abides with the tongue faculty unrestrained, āsavas do not arise in one who abides with the tongue faculty restrained. Reflecting wisely, he abides with the body faculty restrained. While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who abides with the body faculty unrestrained, āsavas do not arise in one who abides with the body faculty restrained. Reflecting wisely, he abides with the mind faculty restrained. While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who abides with the mind faculty unrestrained, āsavas do not arise in one who abides with the mind faculty restrained. While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who abides with the faculties unrestrained, āsavas do not arise in one who abides with the faculties restrained. These are called the āsavas that should be abandoned by restraining.

(ĀSAVAS TO BE ABANDONED BY USING)

13. “What āsavas, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by using? Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, uses the robe only for protection from cold, for protection from heat, for protection from contact with gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, the sun, and creeping things, and only for the purpose of concealing the private parts.

14. “Reflecting wisely, he uses almsfood neither for amusement nor for intoxication nor for the sake of physical beauty and attractiveness, but only for the endurance and continuance of this body, for ending discomfort, and for assisting the holy life, considering: ‘Thus I shall terminate old feelings without arousing new feelings and I shall be healthy and blameless and shall live in comfort.’

15. “Reflecting wisely, he uses the resting place only for protection from cold, for protection from heat, for protection from contact with gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, the sun, and creeping things, and only for the purpose of warding off the perils of climate and for enjoying retreat.

16. “Reflecting wisely, he uses the medicinal requisites only for protection from arisen afflicting feelings and for the benefit of good health.

17. “While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who does not use the requisites thus, āsavas do not arise in one who uses them thus. These are called the āsavas that should be abandoned by using.

(ĀSAVAS TO BE ABANDONED BY ENDURING)

18. “What āsavas, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by enduring? Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, bears cold and heat, hunger and thirst, and contact with gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, the sun, and creeping things; he endures ill-spoken, unwelcome words and arisen bodily feelings that are painful, racking, sharp, piercing, disagreeable, distressing, and menacing to life. While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who does not endure such things, āsavas do not arise in one who endures them. These are called the āsavas that should be abandoned by enduring.

(ĀSAVAS TO BE ABANDONED BY AVOIDING)

19. “What āsavas, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by avoiding? Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, avoids a wild elephant, a wild horse, a wild bull, a wild dog, a snake, a stump, a bramble patch, a chasm, a cliff, a cesspit, a sewer. Reflecting wisely, he avoids sitting on unsuitable seats, wandering to unsuitable resorts, and associating with bad friends, since if he were to do so wise companions in the holy life might suspect him of bad conduct. While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who does not avoid these things, āsavas do not arise in one who avoids them. These are called the āsavas that should be abandoned by avoiding.

(ĀSAVAS TO BE ABANDONED BY REMOVING)

20. “What āsavas, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by removing? Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, does not tolerate an arisen thought of sensual desire; he abandons it, removes it, does away with it, and annihilates it. He does not tolerate an arisen thought of ill will; he abandons it, removes it, does away with it, and annihilates it. He does not tolerate an arisen thought of cruelty; he abandons it, removes it, does away with it, and annihilates it. He does not tolerate arisen unskilful and unwholesome states; he abandons them, removes them, does away with them, and annihilates them. While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who does not remove these thoughts, āsavas do not arise in one who removes them. These are called the āsavas that should be abandoned by removing.

(ĀSAVAS TO BE ABANDONED BY DEVELOPING)

21. “What āsavas, bhikkhus, should be abandoned by developing? Here a bhikkhu, reflecting wisely, develops the mindfulness enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and ripens in relinquishment. He develops the investigation-of-phenomena enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and ripens in relinquishment. He develops the energy enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and ripens in relinquishment. He develops the rapture enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and ripens in relinquishment. He develops the tranquillity enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and ripens in relinquishment. He develops the concentration enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and ripens in relinquishment. He develops the equanimity enlightenment factor, which is supported by seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, and ripens in relinquishment. While vexatious āsavas might arise in one who does not develop these enlightenment factors, āsavas do not arise in one who develops them. These are called the āsavas that should be abandoned by developing.

(CONCLUSION)

22. “Bhikkhus, when for a bhikkhu the āsavas that should be abandoned by seeing have been abandoned by seeing, when the āsavas that should be abandoned by restraining have been abandoned by restraining, when the āsavas that should be abandoned by using have been abandoned by using, when the āsavas that should be abandoned by enduring have been abandoned by enduring, when the āsavas that should be abandoned by avoiding have been abandoned by avoiding, when the āsavas that should be abandoned by removing have been abandoned by removing, when the āsavas that should be abandoned by developing have been abandoned by developing—then he is called a bhikkhu who dwells restrained with the restraint of all the āsavas. He has severed craving, flung off the fetters, and with the complete penetration of conceit he has made an end of suffering.”

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

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